The current location of the town of Baena must be located in an Arab hisn (castle) named Bayyana that already existed in the 9th century. Bayyana appears in the sources in relation to the muladi rebellion of Umar ibn Hafsun in the second half of the 9th century, who managed to conquer Bayyana in 890 AD. This same year the emir Abd Allah defeats Umar ibn Hafsun in Bulayy (Aguilar de la Frontera) and establishes a cavalry corps in the citadel of Baena, now converted into madina, then passing the capital of the cora de Cabra to Baena.

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