It is placed to an altitude of 585 meters and up to 76 kilometers of the capital of the province, Cordova. Until the year 1833, Villanueva of the Duke was forming a part of Estremadura.
Villanueva of the Duke was founded in the centuries medieval, though the territory had notable importance during the Arabic epoch since in his term Berber settled himself the clan of kazna, since it is testified by the remains appeared in the Castle called of the Crown, placed close to the Cuzna. It arises from the exodus of the neighbors of the former settlement of The Allozo, which was placed very much beyond. Because of the pest in the current emplacement, being calling it Retamal, as far back as the last third of the 13th century. Towards the beginning of s. The XVIth takes Villanueva's name of the Marquess, supporting it until ends of 1680, year in the one that definitively the Duke of Béjar still has with the toponym " of the Duke " in gratefulness. In 1631 it received of hands of Philip IV the title of Villa, for which there paid four thousand duchies the own count of Belalcázar and Duke of Béjar, becoming free of the neighbor Hinojosa who fought up to trying to take from him the maximum of the current term.
Of his monumental heritage, stand out some religious buildings as the hermitage of the Virgin of Guide, the hermitage of San Gregorio and San Mateo's church.